Table of Contents

1. Science and Sustainability      

Our Island, Earth  

Environmental Science    

The Nature of Science      

Seeking a Sustainable Future      


2. Earth’s Physical Systems

Matter, Chemistry, and the Environment 

Energy: An Introduction  

Geology: The Physical Basis for Environmental Science      

Geologic and Natural Hazards    


3. Evolution and Population Ecology  

Evolution: The Source of Earth’s Biodiversity   

Ecology and the Organism 

Population Ecology 

Conserving Biodiversity  


4. Species Interactions and Community Ecology 

Species Interactions

Ecological Communities  

Earth’s Biomes     


5. Environmental Systems and Ecosystem Ecology      

Earth’s Environmental Systems  


Biogeochemical Cycles    


6. Ethics, Economics, and Sustainable Development    

Environmental Ethics      

Economics and the Environment

Sustainable Development


7. Environmental Policy  

Environmental Policy: An Overview      

U.S. Environmental Law and Policy

International Environmental Policy       

Approaches to Environmental Policy     


8. Human Population       

Our World at Nearly 8 Billion     


Population and Society    


9. The Underpinnings of Agriculture     

Resources and Services for Agriculture 

Soil: A Foundation of Agriculture

Water for Agriculture      

Nutrients for Plants

Pollination for Farming   

Preserving Genetic Diversity      

Conserving Soil and Land Resources     


10. Making Agriculture Sustainable       

The Race to Feed the World

Raising Animals for Food

Controlling Pests and Weeds       

Genetically Modified Food 

Organic Agriculture

Sustainable Food Production      


11. Biodiversity and Its Conservation    

Life’s Diversity on Earth  

Benefits of Biodiversity   

Biodiversity Loss and Extinction

Conservation Biology: The Search for Solutions


12.Forests, Forest Management, and Protected Areas

Forest Ecosystems and Forest Resources 

Forest Loss

Forest Management

Parks and Protected Areas 


13. The Urban Environment       

Our Urbanizing World     


Creating Livable Cities     

Urban Sustainability


14. Environmental Health and Toxicology

Environmental Health     

Toxic Substances and Their Effects on Organisms 

Toxic Substances and Their Effects on Ecosystems

Studying Effects of Hazards

Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Philosophical and Policy Approaches    


15. Freshwater Systems and Resources

Freshwater Systems

Human Activities Affect Waterways      

Solutions to Depletion of Fresh Water   

Freshwater Pollution and Its Control      


16. Marine and Coastal Systems and Resources

The Oceans

Marine and Coastal Ecosystems 

Marine Pollution  

Emptying the Oceans       

Marine Conservation


17. The Atmosphere, Air Quality, and Air Pollution Control    

The Atmosphere   

Outdoor Air Quality

Ozone Depletion and Recovery   

Addressing Acid Deposition

Indoor Air Quality


18. Global Climate Change      

Our Dynamic Climate       

Studying Climate Change 

Impacts of Climate Change 

Responding to Climate Change   


19. Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency   

Sources of Energy

Fossil Fuels: Their Formation, Extraction, and Use      

Reaching Further for Fossil Fuels

Addressing Impacts of Fossil Fuel Use   

Energy Efficiency and Conservation      


20. Conventional Energy Alternatives   

Alternatives to Fossil Fuels

Nuclear Power      


Hydroelectric Power


21. New Renewable Energy Sources       

Shifting to Renewable Energy     

Solar Energy

Wind Power 

Geothermal Energy 

Ocean Energy Sources     

Energy Storage     


22. Managing Our Waste 

Approaches to Waste Management

Municipal Solid Waste     

Industrial Solid Waste     

Hazardous Waste 


23. Minerals and Mining 

Earth’s Mineral Resources 

Mining Methods and Their Impacts

Toward Sustainable Mineral Use