Table of Contents

TOCs: Engineering Graphics with AutoCAD 2020 

Preface v

Chapter 1  Getting Started 1

  • 1-1  Introduction 2
  • To Start a New Drawing 2
  • 1-2  Tabs and Panels 5
  • 1-3  The Command Line Box 7
  • 1-4  Command Tools 8
  • 1-5  Starting a New Drawing 9
  • 1-6  Naming a Drawing 9
  • 1-7  Drawing Units 12
  • 1-8  Drawing Limits 15
  • 1-9  Grid and Snap 18
  • 1-10  Sample Problem SP1-1 20
  • 1-11  Save and Save As 23
  • 1-12  Open 25
  • 1-13  Close 27
  • 1-14  Exercise Problems 28

Chapter 2  Fundamentals of 2D Construction 31

  • 2-1  Introduction 31
  • 2-2  Line–Random Points 31
  • 2-3  Erase 34
  • 2-4  Line–Snap Points 35
  • 2-5  Line–Dynamic Inputs 36
  • 2-6  Construction Line 38
  • 2-7  Circle 42
  • 2-8  Circle Centerlines 45
  • 2-9  Polyline 47
  • 2-10  Spline 51
  • 2-11  Ellipse 52
  • 2-12  Rectangle 56
  • 2-13  Polygon 57
  • 2-14  Point 58
  • 2-15  Text 59
  • 2-16  Move 65
  • 2-17  Copy 67
  • 2-18  Offset 68
  • 2-19  Mirror 69
  • 2-20  Array 69
  • 2-21  Rotate 72
  • 2-22  Trim 73
  • 2-23  Extend 74
  • 2-24  Break 75
  • 2-25  Chamfer 76
  • 2-26  Fillet 77
  • 2-27  Table 78
  • 2-28  Exercise Problems 82

Chapter 3  Advanced Commands 93

  • 3-1  Introduction 93
  • 3-2  Osnap 93
  • 3-3  Osnap–Endpoint 95
  • 3-4  Osnap–Snap From 95
  • 3-5  Osnap–Midpoint 97
  • 3-6  Osnap–Intersection 97
  • 3-7  Osnap–Apparent Intersection 98
  • 3-8  Osnap–Center 99
  • 3-9  Osnap–Quadrant 100
  • 3-10  Osnap–Perpendicular 100
  • 3-11  Osnap–Tangent 101
  • 3-12  Osnap–Nearest 102
  • 3-13  Sample Problem SP3-1 102
  • 3-14  Sample Problem SP3-2 103
  • 3-15  Grips 105
  • 3-16  Grips–Extend 106
  • 3-17  Grips–Move 107
  • 3-18  Grips–Rotate 108
  • 3-19  Grips–Scale 108
  • 3-20  Grips–Mirror 109
  • 3-21  Blocks 110
  • 3-22  Working with Blocks 113
  • 3-23  Wblock 117
  • 3-24  Layers 120
  • 3-25  Attributes 129
  • 3-26  Title Blocks with Attributes 134
  • 3-27  Edit Polyline 135
  • 3-28  Edit Spline 136
  • 3-29  Edit Text 138
  • 3-30  Constructing the Bisector of an Angle–Method I 139
  • 3-31  Constructing the Bisector of an Angle–Method II 140
  • 3-32  Constructing an Ogee Curve (S-Curve) with Equal Arcs 141
  • 3-33  Constructing a Parabola 142
  • 3-34  Constructing a Hyperbola 143
  • 3-35  Constructing a Spiral 144
  • 3-36  Constructing a Helix 144
  • 3-37  Designing by Using Shape Parameters 145
  • 3-38  Exercise Problems 148

Chapter 4  Sketching 167

  • 4-1  Introduction 167
  • 4-2  Establishing Your Own Style 167
  • 4-3  Graph Paper 168
  • 4-4  Pencils 168
  • 4-5  Lines 168
  • 4-6  Proportions 170
  • 4-7  Curves 171
  • 4-8  Sample Problem SP4-1 172
  • 4-9  Isometric Sketches 173
  • 4-10  Sample Problem SP4-2 175
  • 4-11  Oblique Sketches 176
  • 4-12  Perspective Sketches 178
  • 4-13  Working in Different Orientations 180
  • 4-14  Exercise Problems 181

Chapter 5  Orthographic Views 195

  • 5-1  Introduction 195
  • 5-2  Three Views of an Object 196
  • 5-3  Visualization 197
  • 5-4  Hidden Lines 199
  • 5-5  Hidden Line Conventions 199
  • 5-6  Drawing Hidden Lines 200
  • 5-7  Precedence of Lines 205
  • 5-8  Slanted Surfaces 205
  • 5-9  Projection Between Views 206
  • 5-10  Sample Problem SP5-1 207
  • 5-11  Compound Lines 209
  • 5-12  Sample Problem SP5-2 209
  • 5-13  Oblique Surfaces 211
  • 5-14  Sample Problem SP5-3 213
  • 5-15  Rounded Surfaces 214
  • 5-16  Sample Problem SP5-4 216
  • 5-17  Holes 217
  • 5-18  Holes in Slanted Surfaces 218
  • 5-19  Cylinders 222
  • 5-20  Sample Problem SP5-5 223
  • 5-21  Cylinders with Slanted and Rounded Surfaces 224
  • 5-22  Sample Problem SP5-6 224
  • 5-23  Drawing Conventions and Cylinders 226
  • 5-24  Irregular Surfaces 227
  • 5-25  Sample Problem SP5-7 228
  • 5-26  Hole Callouts 228
  • 5-27  Castings 231
  • 5-28  Sample Problem SP5-8 233
  • 5-29  Thin-Walled Objects 234
  • 5-30  Sample Problem SP5-9 235
  • 5-31  Intersections 236
  • 5-32  Sample Problem SP5-10 237
  • 5-33  Sample Problem SP5-11 239
  • 5-34  Sample Problem SP5-12 239
  • 5-35  Designing by Modifying an Existing Part 242
  • 5-36  Drawing Standards 243
  • 5-37  Third- and First-Angle Projections 245
  • 5-38  Exercise Problems 247

Chapter 6  Sectional Views 281

  • 6-1  Introduction 281
  • 6-2  Cutting Plane Lines 283
  • 6-3  Section Lines 286
  • 6-4  Hatch 288
  • 6-5  Sample Problem SP6-1 290
  • 6-6  Styles of Section Lines 291
  • 6-7  Sectional View Location 292
  • 6-8  Holes in Sections 293
  • 6-9  Gradients 293
  • 6-10  Offset Sections 294
  • 6-11  Multiple Sections 295
  • 6-12  Aligned Sections 296
  • 6-13  Drawing Conventions in Sections 296
  • 6-14  Half, Partial, and Broken-Out Sectional Views 297
  • 6-15  Removed Sectional Views 298
  • 6-16  Breaks 299
  • 6-17  Sectional Views of Castings 300
  • 6-18  Exercise Problems 302

Chapter 7  Auxiliary Views 325

  • 7-1  Introduction 325
  • 7-2  Projection Between Normal and Auxiliary Views 326
  • 7-3  Sample Problem SP7-1 328
  • 7-4  Transferring Lines Between Views 329
  • 7-5  Sample Problem SP7-2 331
  • 7-6  Projecting Rounded Surfaces 332
  • 7-7  Sample Problem SP7-3 332
  • 7-8  Projecting Irregular Surfaces 334
  • 7-9  Sample Problem SP7-4 334
  • 7-10  Sample Problem SP7-5 335
  • 7-11  Partial Auxiliary Views 336
  • 7-12  Sectional Auxiliary Views 337
  • 7-13  Auxiliary Views of Oblique Surfaces 338
  • 7-14  Secondary Auxiliary Views 338
  • 7-15  Sample Problem SP7-6 341
  • 7-16  Secondary Auxiliary View of an Ellipse 343
  • 7-17  Exercise Problems 344

Chapter 8  Dimensioning 359

  • 8-1  Introduction 359
  • 8-2  Terminology and Conventions 359
  • 8-3  Linear Dimension 362
  • 8-4  Dimension Styles 367
  • 8-5  Units 371
  • 8-6  Aligned Dimensions 373
  • 8-7  Radius and Diameter Dimensions 375
  • 8-8  Angular Dimensions 379
  • 8-9  Ordinate Dimensions 381
  • 8-10  Baseline Dimensions 384
  • 8-11  Continue Dimension 385
  • 8-12  Quick Dimension 386
  • 8-13  Center Mark 387
  • 8-14  Mleader and Qleader 388
  • 8-15  Text Angle 391
  • 8-16  Tolerances 392
  • 8-17  Dimensioning Holes 392
  • 8-18  Placing Dimensions 394
  • 8-19  Fillets and Rounds 395
  • 8-20  Rounded Shapes (Internal) 395
  • 8-21  Rounded Shapes (External) 396
  • 8-22  Irregular Surfaces 397
  • 8-23  Polar Dimensions 398
  • 8-24  Chamfers 398
  • 8-25  Knurling 399
  • 8-26  Keys and Keyseats 400
  • 8-27  Symbols and Abbreviations 400
  • 8-28  Symmetry and Centerline 401
  • 8-29  Dimensioning to Points 401
  • 8-30  Coordinate Dimensions 402
  • 8-31  Sectional Views 403
  • 8-32  Orthographic Views 404
  • 8-33  Very Large Radii 405
  • 8-34  Exercise Problems 406
Chapter 9  Tolerancing 427
  • 9-1  Introduction 427
  • 9-2  Direct Tolerance Methods 427
  • 9-3  Tolerance Expressions 428
  • 9-4  Understanding Plus and Minus Tolerances 429
  • 9-5  Creating Plus and Minus Tolerances with AutoCAD 429
  • 9-6  Limit Tolerances 432
  • 9-7  Creating Limit Tolerances by Using AutoCAD 433
  • 9-8  Angular Tolerances 435
  • 9-9  Standard Tolerances 436
  • 9-10  Double Dimensioning 437
  • 9-11  Chain Dimensions and Baseline Dimensions 438
  • 9-12  Tolerance Studies 440
  • 9-13  Rectangular Dimensions 441
  • 9-14  Hole Locations 441
  • 9-15  Choosing a Shaft for a Toleranced Hole 442
  • 9-16  Sample Problem SP9-1 443
  • 9-17  Sample Problem SP9-2 444
  • 9-18  Standard Fits (Metric Values) 444
  • 9-19  Nominal Sizes 447
  • 9-20  Hole and Shaft Basis 447
  • 9-21  Sample Problem SP9-3 447
  • 9-22  Standard Fits (Inch Values) 448
  • 9-23  Sample Problem SP9-4 449
  • 9-24  Preferred and Standard Sizes 449
  • 9-25  Surface Finishes 450
  • 9-26  Surface Control Symbols 452
  • 9-27  Design Problems 453
  • 9-28  Exercise Problems 459

Chapter 10  Geometric Tolerances 473

  • 10-1  Introduction 473
  • 10-2  Tolerances of Form 474
  • 10-3  Flatness 474
  • 10-4  Straightness 475
  • 10-5  Straightness (RFS and MMC) 475
  • 10-6  Circularity 478
  • 10-7  Cylindricity 479
  • 10-8  Geometric Tolerances Created by Using AutoCAD 479
  • 10-9  Tolerances of Orientation 487
  • 10-10  Datums 487
  • 10-11  Perpendicularity 488
  • 10-12  Parallelism 490
  • 10-13  Angularism 491
  • 10-14  Profiles 491
  • 10-15  Runouts 493
  • 10-16  Positional Tolerances 494
  • 10-17  Virtual Condition 496
  • 10-18  Floating Fasteners 496
  • 10-19  Sample Problem SP10-1 497
  • 10-20  Sample Problem SP10-2 498
  • 10-21  Fixed Fasteners 499
  • 10-22  Sample Problem SP10-3 499
  • 10-23  Design Problems 500
  • 10-24  Exercise Problems 503

Chapter 11  Threads and Fasteners 525

  • 11-1  Introduction 525
  • 11-2  Thread Terminology 525
  • 11-3  Thread Callouts (Metric Units) 526
  • 11-4  Thread Callouts (English Units) 526
  • 11-5  Thread Representations 528
  • 11-6  Orthographic Views of Internal Threads 533
  • 11-7  Sectional Views of Internal Thread Representations 535
  • 11-8  Types of Threads 535
  • 11-9  How to Draw an External Square Thread 536
  • 11-10  How to Draw an Internal Square Thread 537
  • 11-11  How to Draw an External Acme Thread 537
  • 11-12  Bolts and Nuts 539
  • 11-13  Screws 539
  • 11-14  Studs 541
  • 11-15  Head Shapes 541
  • 11-16  Nuts 545
  • 11-17  Sample Problem SP11-1 548
  • 11-18  Sample Problem SP11-2 549
  • 11-19  Standard Screws 550
  • 11-20  Setscrews 551
  • 11-21  Washers 552
  • 11-22  Keys 553
  • 11-23  Rivets 554
  • 11-24  Springs 555
  • 11-25  Tool Palettes 558
  • 11-26  Exercise Problems 561

Chapter 12  Working Drawings 571

  • 12-1  Introduction 571
  • 12-2  Assembly Drawings 571
  • 12-3  Drawing Formats (Templates) 574
  • 12-4  Title Block 576
  • 12-5  Revision Block 578
  • 12-6  Tolerance Block 580
  • 12-7  Release Block 580
  • 12-8  Parts List (Bill of Materials–BOM) 581
  • 12-9  Detail Drawings 582
  • 12-10  First-Angle Projection 583
  • 12-11  Drawing Notes 584
  • 12-12  Design Layouts 584
  • 12-13  Sample Problem SP12-1 585
  • 12-14  Sample Problem SP12-2 589
  • 12-15  Sample Problem SP12-3 592
  • 12-16  Exercise Problems 594

Chapter 13  Gears, Bearings, and Cams 617

  • 13-1  Introduction 617
  • 13-2  Types of Gears 617
  • 13-3  Gear Terminology–Spur 618
  • 13-4  Spur Gear Drawings 619
  • 13-5  Sample Problem SP13-1 621
  • 13-6  Sample Problem SP13-2 622
  • 13-7  Sample Problem SP13-3 624
  • 13-8  Selecting Spur Gears 625
  • 13-9  Center Distance Between Gears 626
  • 13-10  Sample Problem SP13-4 627
  • 13-11  Combining Spur Gears 629
  • 13-12  Gear Terminology–Bevel 629
  • 13-13  How to Draw Bevel Gears 631
  • 13-14  Worm Gears 633
  • 13-15  Helical Gears 634
  • 13-16  Racks 636
  • 13-17  Ball Bearings 637
  • 13-18  Sample Problem SP13-5 638
  • 13-19  Bushings 639
  • 13-20  Sample Problem SP13-6 640
  • 13-21  Cam Displacement Diagrams 641
  • 13-22  Cam Motions 643
  • 13-23  Cam Followers 647
  • 13-24  Sample Problem SP13-7 648
  • 13-25  Exercise Problems 651

Chapter 14  Fundamentals of 3D Drawing 663

  • 14-1  Introduction 663
  • 14-2  The World Coordinate System 663
  • 14-3  Viewpoints 665
  • 14-4  Perspective and Parallel Grids 668
  • 14-5  3D Modeling 670
  • 14-6  User Coordinate System (UCS) 672
  • 14-7  Editing a Solid Model 678
  • 14-8  Visual Styles 679
  • 14-9  Rotating a UCS Axis 681
  • 14-10  Sample Problem SP14-1 683
  • 14-11  Visual Errors 685
  • 14-12  Sample Problem SP14-2 685
  • 14-13  Orthographic Views 688
  • 14-14  Line Thickness 692
  • 14-15  Using the Thickness Command to Create Objects 695
  • 14-16  Exercise Problems 698

Chapter 15  Modeling 703

  • 15-1  Introduction 703
  • 15-2  Box 703
  • 15-3  Sphere 708
  • 15-4  Cylinder 708
  • 15-5  Cone 710
  • 15-6  Wedge 712
  • 15-7  Torus 714
  • 15-8  Extrude 715
  • 15-9  Revolve 717
  • 15-10  Helix 718
  • 15-11  Polysolid 719
  • 15-12  Loft 720
  • 15-13  Intersect 721
  • 15-14  Union and Subtract 722
  • 15-15  Solid Modeling and UCSs 725
  • 15-16  Combining Solid Objects 727
  • 15-17  Intersecting Solids 732
  • 15-18  Solid Models of Castings 737
  • 15-19  Thread Representations in Solid Models 741
  • 15-20  List 743
  • 15-21  Massprop 743
  • 15-22  Face and Edge Editing 744
  • 15-23  Exercise Problems 752

Index 781

Chapter 16  Projects (Online Only)

Appendix (Online Only)