Table of Contents

Brief Contents

Acknowledgments xvii

About the authors xix

Part 1 Historical Perspectives 1

1. Early History (2000 b.c. to a.d. 1800) 2

2. Prisons (1800 to the Present) 26

3. Correctional Ideologies: The Pendulum Swings 48

4. The Sentencing and Appeals Process 68

Part 2 Alternatives to Imprisonment 95

5. Probation 96

6. Diversion and Intermediate Sanctions 120

Part 3 Institutional Corrections 155

7. Custody Functions 156

8. Security Threat Groups and Prison Gangs 180

9. Management and Treatment Functions 192

10. Jails and Detention Facilities 216

11. State and Local Prison Systems 238

12. The Federal System 256

13. Private-Sector Systems 278

14. The Death Penalty 296

15. Parole and Reentry 320

Part 4 Correctional Clients 347

16. Inmate and Ex-Offender Rights 348

17. Male Offenders 374

18. Female Offenders 392

19. Juvenile Offenders 416

20. Facilities for Juveniles 438

21. Special-Category Offenders 456

Glossary 493

Author index 507

Subject index