Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents

1. Educational Psychology: A Foundation for Teaching

2. Cognitive Development

3. Social, Moral, and Emotional Development

4. Student Diversity

5. Behavioral and Social Theories of Learning

6. Cognitive Theories of Learning

7. The Effective Lesson

8. Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction

9. Grouping, Differentiation, and Technology

10. Motivating Students to Learn

11. Effective Learning Environments

12. Learners with Exceptionalities

13. Assessing Student Learning

14. Standardized Tests and Accountability


Detailed Table of Contents


1. Educational Psychology: A Foundation for Teaching


What Makes a Good Teacher?

Knowing the Subject Matters (But So Does Teaching Skill)

Mastering® Teaching Skills

Can Good Teaching Be Taught?

The Intentional Teacher

21st Century Skills

Common Core and College- and Career-Ready State Standards

What Is the Role of Research in Educational Psychology?

The Goal of Research in Educational Psychology

The Value of Research in Educational Psychology to You the Teacher

Teaching as Decision Making

Research + Common Sense = Effective Teaching

Research on Effective Programs

Impact of Research on Educational Practice

How Can I Become an Intentional Teacher?

Teacher Certification

Beyond Certification


2. Cognitive Development


How Do Children Develop Cognitively?

Aspects of Development

Issues of Development

How Did Piaget View Cognitive Development?

How Development Occurs

Piaget’s Stages of Development

How Is Piaget’s Work Viewed Today?

Criticisms and Revisions of Piaget’s Theory

Neo-Piagetian Views of Development

How Did Vygotsky View Cognitive Development?

How Development Occurs

How Did Bronfenbrenner View Development?

How Do Language and Literacy Develop?

Language and Literacy Development during the Preschool Years

Language and Literacy Development during the Elementary and Secondary Years


3. Social, Moral, and Emotional Development


What Are Some Views of Personal and Social Development?

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

Implications and Criticisms of Erikson’s Theory

What Are Some Views of Moral Development?

Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning

Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory

How Do Children Develop Socially and Emotionally?

Socioemotional Development during the Preschool Years

Socioemotional Development during the Elementary Years

Socioemotional Development during the Middle School and High School Years


4. Student Diversity


What Is the Impact of Culture on Teaching and Learning?

How Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Student Achievement?

The Role of Child-Rearing Practices

The Link between Income and Summer Learning

The Role of Schools as Middle-Class Institutions

School and Community Factors

Promoting Resilience among Students Who Are Disadvantaged

School, Family, and Community Partnerships

Supporting the Achievement of Children from Low-Income Groups

Nonschool Solutions to Achievement Problems of Children Who Are Disadvantaged

Implications of Socioeconomic Diversity for Teachers

How Do Ethnicity and Race Affect Students’ School Experiences?

Racial and Ethnic Composition of the United States

Academic Achievement of Students from Underrepresented Groups

Barriers to the Achievement of Students from Underrepresented Groups

Stereotype Threat

Effects of School Desegregation

How Do Language Differences and Bilingual Programs Affect Student Achievement?

Bilingual Education

What Is Multicultural Education?

Dimensions of Multicultural Education

How Do Gender and Gender Bias Affect Students’ School Experiences?

Male and Female Thinking and Learning

The Boy Crisis

Sex-Role Stereotyping and Gender Bias

Sexual Orientation

How Do Students Differ in Intelligence and Learning Styles?

Definitions of Intelligence

Origins of Intelligence

Theories of Learning Styles

Aptitude—Treatment Interactions


5. Behavioral and Social Theories of Learning


What Is Learning?

What Are Behavioral Learning Theories?

Pavlov: Classical Conditioning

Skinner: Operant Conditioning

What Are Some Principles of Behavioral Learning?

The Role of Consequences



Immediacy of Consequences



Schedules of Reinforcement


The Role of Antecedents

How Has Social Learning Theory Contributed to Our Understanding of Human Learning?

Bandura: Modeling and Observational Learning

Meichenbaum’s Model of Self-Regulated Learning

Strengths and Limitations of Behavioral Learning Theories


6. Cognitive Theories of Learning


What Is an Information-Processing Model?

How Information Processing Works

Executive Processing

Sensory Register

Working (or Short-Term) Memory

Long-Term Memory

Factors That Enhance Long-Term Memory

Other Information-Processing Models

What Do We Know from Research on the Brain?

How the Brain Works

Brain Development

Implications of Brain Research for Education

Applications of Brain Research to Classroom Teaching

What Causes People to Remember or Forget?

Forgetting and Remembering


How Can Memory Strategies Be Taught?

Verbal Learning

What Makes Information Meaningful?

Rote versus Meaningful Learning

Schema Theory

How Do Metacognitive Skills Help Students Learn?

What Study Strategies Help Students Learn?

Practice Tests




Writing to Learn

Outlining and Concept Mapping

The PQ4R Method

How Do Cognitive Teaching Strategies Help Students Learn?

Making Learning Relevant and Activating Prior Knowledge

Organizing Information


7. The Effective Lesson


What Is Direct Instruction?

How Is a Direct Instruction Lesson Taught?

State Learning Objectives

Orient Students to the Lesson

Review Prerequisites

Present New Material

Conduct Learning Probes

Provide Independent Practice

Assess Performance and Provide Feedback

Provide Distributed Practice and Review

How Does Research on Direct Instruction Methods Inform Teaching?

How Do Students Learn and Transfer Concepts?

Concept Learning and Teaching

Teaching for Transfer of Learning

How Are Discussions Used in Instruction?

Subjective and Controversial Topics

Difficult and Novel Concepts

Affective Objectives

Whole-Class Discussions

Small-Group Discussions


8. Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction


What Is the Constructivist View of Learning?

Historical Roots of Constructivism

Top-Down Processing

Peer Interaction

Discovery Learning

Self-Regulated Learning


Constructivist Methods in the Content Areas

Research on Constructivist Methods

How Is Cooperative Learning Used in Instruction?

Cooperative Learning Methods

Research on Cooperative Learning

How Are Problem-Solving and Thinking Skills Taught?

The Problem-Solving Process

Teaching Creative Problem Solving

Teaching Thinking Skills

Critical Thinking


9. Grouping, Differentiation, and Technology


What Are Elements of Effective Instruction beyond a Good Lesson?

Carroll’s Model of School Learning and QAIT

How Are Students Grouped to Accommodate Achievement Differences?

Between-Class Ability Grouping


Regrouping for Reading and Mathematics

Within-Class Ability Grouping


What Are Some Ways of Differentiating Instruction?

Differentiated and Personalized Instruction

Peer Tutoring

Tutoring by Teachers

What Educational Programs Exist for Students Placed at Risk?

Compensatory Education Programs

Early Intervention Programs

Comprehensive School Reform Programs

After-School and Summer School Programs

How Is Technology Used in Education?

Technology for Classroom Teaching

Multimedia Teaching

Technology for Learning

The Internet for Students

Web 2.0

Instructional Television and Embedded Multimedia

Challenges of Integrating Technology

The Internet for Teachers

Technology for Administration

The Digital Divide


10. Motivating Students to Learn


What Is Motivation?

What Are Some Theories of Motivation?

Motivation and Behavioral Learning Theory

Motivation and Human Needs

Motivation and Attribution Theory

Motivation and Mindset

Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning

Motivation and Expectancy Theory

What Factors Affect Students’ Motivation?

Motivation and Goal Orientations

Learned Helplessness

Teacher Expectations and Achievement

Anxiety and Achievement

How Can Teachers Increase Students’ Motivation to Learn?

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation

Principles for Providing Extrinsic Incentives to Learn

Using Praise Effectively

Teaching Students to Praise Themselves


11. Effective Learning Environments


What Is an Effective Learning Environment?

What Is the Impact of Time on Learning?

Using Allocated Time for Instruction

Using Engaged Time Effectively

Overdoing Time On Task

Classroom Management in the Student-Centered Classroom

What Practices Contribute to Effective Classroom Management?

Starting Out the Year Right

Setting Class Rules

What Are Some Strategies for Managing Routine Misbehavior?

The Principle of Least Intervention


Nonverbal Cues

Praising Behavior That Is Incompatible with Misbehavior

Praising Other Students

Verbal Reminders

Repeated Reminders

Applying Consequences

How Is Applied Behavior Analysis Used to Manage More Serious Behavior Problems?

How Student Misbehavior Is Maintained

Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

Applied Behavior Analysis Programs

Ethics of Behavioral Methods

How Can Serious Behavior Problems Be Prevented?

Preventive Programs

Identifying Causes of Misbehavior

Enforcing Rules and Practices

Enforcing School Attendance

Practicing Intervention

Requesting Family Involvement

Using Peer Mediation

Confronting Bullying

Judiciously Applying Consequences


12. Learners with Exceptionalities


Who Are Learners with Exceptionalities?

“People-First” Language

Types of Exceptionalities and the Numbers of Students Served

Students with Intellectual Disabilities

Students with Learning Disabilities

Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Students with Speech or Language Impairments

Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Students with Sensory, Physical, and Health Impairments

Students Who Are Gifted and Talented

What Is Special Education?

Public Law 94-142 and IDEA

An Array of Special-Education Services

What Is Response to Intervention?

Tier 1: Prevention

Tier 2: Immediate Intervention

Tier 3: Intensive Intervention

What Is Inclusion?

Research on Inclusion

What Are Effective Strategies for Students with Disabilities in General Education?

Adapting Instruction

Teaching Learning Strategies and Metacognitive Awareness

Prevention and Early Intervention

Tutoring and Small-Group Interventions for Struggling Readers

Computers and Students with Disabilities

Buddy Systems and Peer Tutoring

Special-Education Teams

Social Integration of Students with Disabilities


13. Assessing Student Learning


What Are Instructional Objectives and How Are They Used?

Planning Lesson Objectives

Aligning Objectives and Assessment

Using Taxonomies of Instructional Objectives

Research on Instructional Objectives

Why Is Evaluation Important?

Evaluation as Feedback

Evaluation as Information

Evaluation as Incentive

How Is Student Learning Evaluated?

Formative and Summative Evaluations

Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Evaluations

Matching Evaluation Strategies with Goals

How Are Tests Constructed?

Principles of Achievement Testing

Using a Table of Specifications

Writing Selected-Response Test Items

Writing Constructed-Response Items

Writing and Evaluating Essay Tests

Writing and Evaluating Problem-Solving Items

What Are Authentic, Portfolio, and Performance Assessments?

Portfolio Assessment

Performance Assessment

Effectiveness of Performance Assessments

Scoring Rubrics for Performance Assessments

Assessment Through Digital Games and Simulations

How Are Grades Determined?

Establishing Grading Criteria

Assigning Letter Grades

Performance Grading

Other Alternative Grading Systems

Assigning Report Card Grades


14. Standardized Tests and Accountability


What Are Standardized Tests and How Are They Used?

Selection and Placement


Evaluation and Accountability

School Improvement

What Types of Standardized Tests Are Given?

Aptitude Tests

Norm-Referenced Achievement Tests

Criterion-Referenced Achievement Tests

Standard Setting

How Are Standardized Tests Interpreted?

Percentile Scores

Grade-Equivalent Scores

Standard Scores

What Are Some Issues Concerning Standardized and Classroom Testing?

Test Validity

Test Reliability

Test Bias

Computerized Test Administration

Testing Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

Testing Accommodations for English Learners

How Are Educators Held Accountable for Student Achievement?

Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)

Common Core State Standards

Evidence-Based Reform

How Can You Use Data to Inform Your Teaching?

Benchmark Assessments

Data-Driven Reform

Value-Added Assessment Systems