Table of Contents

Climate & Atmosphere

Atmospheric Energy Balance

Atmospheric Stability

Atmospheric Stability and Saturation Control

Coriolis Effect

Earth-Sun Relations

El Niño and La Niña

Global Warming

Global Wind Patterns with Hadley Cells

Orbital Variations and Climate Change

Ozone Depletion

Water Phase Changes

 

Weather

Cyclones and Anticyclones

Cold Fronts and Warm Fronts

Hurricane Wind Patterns

Jet Stream and Rossby Waves

Midlatitude Cyclones

Tornado Wind Patterns

Wind Pattern Development

 

Hydrology

Cones of Depression

Earth’s Water and the Hydrologic Cycle

Water Table Formation

 

Biomes & Ecosystems

Biological Productivity in Midlatitude Oceans

Daily Movement of the Deep Scattering Layer

 

Earth’s Interior

Lava Lamp Convection

Flipping of Earth's Magnetic Field

How Seismic Waves Reveal Earth’s Internal Layers

Inclination and Declination

Mantle and Core Dimensions

Seismic Wave Motion with Surface Effects

Seismic Wave Motion

Seismographs

Wave reflection and Refraction

 

Age of Earth

Angular Unconformities, Nonconformities, and Disconformities

Kelvin Calculation of Earth’s Age

Radioactive Decay

Relative Geologic Dating

 

Earth’s Materials

Calcareous Ooze and the Calcite Compensation Depth

Cross-Bedding

Dry Compaction and Liquefaction

Foliation of Metamorphic Rock

Foliation Processes

Fractional Crystallization

Igneous Features and Landforms

Mantle Melting and Pressure-Temperature Graphs

Shoreline and Sedimentation Changes

Turbidity Currents and the Formation of Graded Bedding

Tuttle and Bowen’s Data

 

Earthquakes

Dry Compaction and Liquefaction

Elastic Rebound

Seismic Wave Motion with Surface Effects

Seismic Wave Motion

Seismographs

Shoreline and Sedimentation Changes

Tsunami

 

Erosion and Weathering

Erosion of Deformed Sedimentary

Rock

Exposing Metamorphic Rock

Physical Weathering

 

Mass Movement

Dry Compaction and Liquefaction

Mass Movements: Five Main Types

Mass Movements: Uplift and Mass Movement

Mount St. Helens, Washington: Debris Avalanche and Eruption

 

Tectonics and Structure

Convection and Tectonics

Convergent Margins: India-Asia Collision

Divergent Boundary Formation

Faults

Folds

Global Geography Through Geologic Time

Mantle Melting and Plate Tectonics

Motion at Plate Boundaries

Pangea Breakup

Plate Boundary Features

Relative and Absolute Motion

Seafloor Spreading and Magnetization

Seafloor Spreading and Plate Boundaries

Stress and Strain Graphs

Tectonic Settings and Volcanic Activity

Terrane Formation

Transform Faults

 

Volcanoes

Caldera Formation

Caldera Formation: Crater Lake

Hot Spot Volcano Tracks

Magma Rising from the Mantle

Mt. St. Helen's

Tectonic Settings and Volcanic Activity

Volcano Types

 

Ocean and Coastal Systems

Beach Drift and Longshore Currents

Biological Productivity in Midlatitude Oceans

Calcareous Ooze and the Calcite Compensation Depth

Coastal Stabilization Structures

Daily Movement of the Deep Scattering Layer

Ekman Spiral Coastal Upwelling/Downwelling

El Niño and La Niña

Movement of Barrier Island in Response to Rising Sea

Movement of Sand in a Beach Compartment

Ocean Circulation

Seamounts/Tablemounts and Coral Reef Stages

Shoreline and Sedimentation Changes

Sonar and Echolocation

Summertime/Wintertime Beach Conditions

Tidal Cycle

Tidal Patterns

Tsunami

Turbidity Currents and the Formation of Graded Bedding

Wave Interference

Wave Interference with 3D Visualization

Wave Motion and Wave Refraction

Wave Properties

 

Fluvial Systems

Natural Levee Development with Flooding

Sediment Transport by Streams

Stream Processes: Floodplain Development

Stream Processes: Oxbow Lakes

Stream Processes: Oxbow Lakes and Floodplain Development

Stream Terrace Formation

 

Glacial Systems

Glacial Advance and Retreat

Glacial Isostasy

Glacial Processes

 

Eolian Systems

Cross Bedding

Sediment Transport by Wind

 

Solar System Formation

Nebular Hypothesis of Solar System Formation